Environmental pollution burden and strategies for
In addition, the sugarcane rinse liquid may contain pesticide residues. They provide the foundation, therefore, for extremely powerful indicators for policy support, and a means of pricking the global conscience about inequalities in health.
Causes of air pollution
They can increase the risk of heart and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer. Assumptions about simple, singular cause—effect relationships often need to be eschewed; in their place we need to recognize the possibility for multifactorial effects in which single health outcomes are attributable to a wide variety of possibly inter-related environmental and other risk factors; and in which individual exposures may contribute to a range of different health effects. Third, related to this, sources and pathways of exposure change markedly over time—and, indeed, many of the risks associated with what are now landfill sites may well predate the sites themselves e. Economic Benefits of Interventions One of the early examples of cost-benefit analysis for chemical pollution control is the Japan Environment Agency's study of three Japanese classical pollution diseases: Yokkaichi asthma, Minamata disease, and Itai-Itai disease table Over recent years, therefore, many attempts have been made to assess the health status of the population, both nationally and globally, and to deduce the contribution made by pollution and other environmental factors. Second, it is evident that landfill sites leave a legacy which may persist long after they are no longer operational. These three types of diseases each contribute approximately 6 percent to the updated estimate of the global burden of disease WHO Video: How air pollution impacts your body How dirty is the air where you live? This analysis was intended to highlight the economic aspects of pollution control and to encourage governments in developing countries to consider both the costs and the benefits of industrial development. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react with sunlight to eventually form another secondary pollutant, ozone, at ground level. In low- and middle- income countries including Africa, exposure to pollutants in and around homes from the household combustion of polluting fuels on open fires or traditional stoves for cooking, heating and lighting further increases the risk for air pollution-related diseases, including acute lower respiratory infections, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Although these differ substantially in terms of their content and scope, many have involved attempts to make formal assessments of the disease burden attributable to different environmental hazards, and to rank these in terms of their public health significance 38, This chapter will not repeat the discussion about indoor air pollution caused by biomass burning chapter 42 and water pollution caused by poor sanitation at the household level chapter 41 , but it will focus on the problems caused by air and water pollution at the community, country, and global levels. Disinfection by-products and arsenic have been a particular concern International Agency for Research on Cancer
Harvesting rainwater may provide communities with safe drinking water, free of chemicals and micro-organisms, but contamination from roofs and storage tanks needs to be considered. Changes and challenges: China's environmental management in transition.
Air pollution solutions
The issue spurred a diplomatic protest from China, but soon after the government advanced the adoption of a new standard GB , adopting a similar index to the U. Some pesticides are applied to plants by spraying from a distance—even from airplanes. Soft water or low pH makes corrosion more likely. Assessment of air quality benefits from national air pollution control policies in China. Another type of air pollution that can have disastrous consequences is radioactive pollution from a malfunctioning nuclear power station, as occurred in Chernobyl in WHO An advocacy coalition framework. Various mitigation measures for reducing PM10 and health impacts were examined in terms of reductions in tons of PM10 emitted, cost of implementation, time frame for implementation, and health benefits and their associated cost savings. Disinfection by-products and arsenic have been a particular concern International Agency for Research on Cancer The burden in specific local areas may be large, as in the example cited in box Misra examined the costs and benefits of water pollution abatement for a cluster of small-scale industries in Gujarat, India. Because of space limitations, this chapter can give only selected examples of air and water pollution health concerns.
Air pollution is leading to more days spent in the hospital and out of the workforce. As described earlier in this article, the role of the public and the media has become both essential and problematic when challenging the official position on air pollution, especially where data bias and poor management have arisen.
Lin, X. The possibility of contributions from each and all of them needs to be allowed.
Journal of Cleaner Production: NGOs such as Green Beagle and Friends of Nature, both based in Beijing, have integrated this approach, supporting citizen science to understand and appropriate the language of science on air pollution. Exposure to Air Pollutants The extent of the health effects of air pollution depends on actual exposure. Managing air pollution interventions involves monitoring air quality, which may focus on exceedances of air quality guidelines in specific hotspots or on attempts to establish a specific population's average exposure to pollution. Funtowicz, S. New York: Oxford University Press. There are currently few training programmes on air pollution and its health effects, and little related information, in public health education. Interventions to Reduce Air Pollution Reducing air pollution exposure is largely a technical issue. The main concern is effects on the brain from low-level exposure leading to behavioral aberrations and reduced or delayed development of intellectual or motoric ability WHO Before , scientists were asked to provide research, models, and data to legitimize or readdress policy decisions. Water Pollution Chemical pollution of surface water can create health risks, because such waterways are often used directly as drinking water sources or connected with shallow wells used for drinking water. Low-cost sensors and other new technologies can expand air quality monitoring and forecasting to areas that are currently underserved. They may disrupt the function of the endocrine system, resulting in reproductive, developmental, and behavioral problems. China lets media report on air pollution crisis.
The analysis showed a dramatically high cost-benefit ratio and inspired debate about the methodologies used and the results. Total daily exposure is determined by people's time and activity patterns, and it combines indoor and outdoor exposures.
Wastewater from mines or stainless steel production can be a source of exposure to these metals. Low-cost sensors and other new technologies can expand air quality monitoring and forecasting to areas that are currently underserved.
based on 69 review