History paper 1 exam notes

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It can also be pointed out that France impeded steps towards the integration of Rome in and at the end of the specified period. Diplomacy allowed him to make an ally of Austria whilst the lenient Peace of Prague meant that Austria was not permanently alienated from Prussia and Bismarck. Economic and Diplomatic Strength As a constitutional-monarchical state, Piedmont was better able to secure support from the governments of other countries, especially France, Britain and Prussia. The movement for independence and unification was more militant and aggressive in Italy than Germany during , yet still at the time of time of re-unification in Germany was in a much stronger position than Italy. Despotic rulers were given back the control of their duchies Disturbances in Italy were more concerned with regional disputes and economic conditions rather than desire for nationalism. He could also persuade the Kaiser as shown by his insistence on treating Austria leniently after He persuaded other countries to remain neutral: Britain, France and Italy in and Austria in Bismarcks authoritarian attitude and his willingness and ability to override objections in Prussia, for example from the Liberals, were a contrast to the divisions and uncertainties of Bismarck was more skilful in handling the other German states as he was the minister of a universally-recognized monarchy, thus he was more successful in dealing with other countries through his diplomacy and use of war. The largely Protestant North German Confederation, dominated by Prussia, might well have been as far as Bismarck wished to go at that point. William I was not radical but he opposed Austrian power in Germany as this was an obstacle to growth of Prussian power Bismarck From , Bismarcks role became more important but reference might be made to the work of Moltke and Roon. Examiners should expect a reasonable balance. Napoleon IIIs support for Piedmont and Plombieres proved to be a turning point although he withdrew after the battle of Solferino. He was probably persuaded to accept the need to incorporate the southern Catholic states after the defeat of Austria. The key issue is the comparison and contrast of the two periods of Bismarcks foreign policy. Cavour and fellow monarchists did not alarm the governments of other countries thus Piedmont was open to diplomatic help and more conservative forces within Italy as much as the republicans.

Cavour began by strengthening Piedmont. Thus it could be relied upon as reinforcements by France It had a larger army but still had to rely on outside military and diplomatic assistance.

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How far did he wish to unify Germany and did he change? Britain and Bismarcks Prussia also played their part. Garibaldi Garibaldi made his name in Italy and outside by his contribution to the failed revolutions of Failure On the other hand, he had created a dangerous and lasting rival in France whilst the attempts to maintain friendship with both Austria and Russia might have been doomed to failure in view of their rival interests in the Balkans.

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This might deserve a mark in Band 1 if argued effectively. Piedmont gained Lombardy, the first major step towards the unification of the peninsula.

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Edexcel GCSE History Revision, Notes, Past Papers, Resources