Microbial proteases essay
A broad range of applications of these alkaline proteases are getting more attention from researchers with the hope of discovering new strains with unique properties and substantial activity Najafi et al.
Protein hydrolysate preparation with high nutritional value has been accomplished by the addition of microbial alkaline proteases.
The entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus sp. This involvement of proteases may lead them to produce a therapeutic agent against deadly diseases, such as cancer and AIDS Rawlings et al. Owing to its broad-spectrum specificity with different proteins and peptides, it is suggested that PhPrtPI provides nutrients to the nematodes by degradation of insect tissues Soroor et al. Scientists have incorporated different ways to improve protease yield for industrial use, such as cloning and overexpression, screening of strains, fed batch, and chemostat fermentation. Microbial proteases are the most commercially exploited enzyme worldwide. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. The use of ion exchange CM-Sephadex, DEAE-Sephadex and gel filtration chromatography is expedient for the production of purified proteases, such as alkaline, acidic, and neutral from different bacterial sources, such as Bacillus cereus AT and Bacillus circulans Kanmani et al. Alkaline proteases are unique in their activity and maintain a constant alkaline pH while being exploited for different formulations in pharmaceutical, food, and other related industries Banerjee et al. These keratins help to maintain the cortical superstructure by cross-linking the disulfide bonds in the hair Cheng et al. Halophilic enzymes are getting more attention in biotechnological applications due to their thermal stability and ability to retain activity under high stress from organic solvents except for pyridine, which inhibits protease activity. It was found that the engineering for protease for cold resistance gives cold tolerance in protease, which allowed it to work even under low temperatures Banerjee and Ray, ; Castilla et al. Three types of hair keratin have been known Cheng et al. The conventional or traditional protein engineering techniques now have thus far employed mutagenesis in the protease domains for modification in the enzymatic properties of proteases.
It was found that the engineering for protease for cold resistance gives cold tolerance in protease, which allowed it to work even under low temperatures Banerjee and Ray, ; Castilla et al. This means that calcium ions act as cofactors for keratinases; the presence of calcium ions in the media can enhance the activity of keratinases.
Microbes account a two-thirds share of commercial protease around the globe Beg and Gupta, A large number of serin protease subtilisins require the assistance of N-terminal pro-sequence for precursors for the formation of mature and active protease enzymes.
Acidic Protease Acid proteases are stable and active between pH 3. These concerns led to the use of immobilization technology to attempt to increase thermal tolerance, stability to pH, and organic solvents.
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