Reliability in a research paper

But how do researchers know that the scores actually represent the characteristic, especially when it is a construct like intelligence, self-esteem, depression, or working memory capacity?

Or imagine that a researcher develops a new measure of physical risk taking.

validity and reliability in research methodology

Search Reliability and Validity Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner.

This means that any good measure of intelligence should produce roughly the same scores for this individual next week as it does today. Internal consistency reliability is applied to assess the extent of differences within the test items that explore the same construct produce similar results.

Reliability in a research paper

Comment on its face and content validity. When a measure has good test-retest reliability and internal consistency, researchers should be more confident that the scores represent what they are supposed to. This is an extremely important point. Internal consistency reliability is applied to assess the extent of differences within the test items that explore the same construct produce similar results. For example, one would expect new measures of test anxiety or physical risk taking to be positively correlated with existing measures of the same constructs. Therefore, the score measured e. It is assumed that this happens randomly, with the error averaging zero over time; that is, the increases or decreases in error over a number of measurements even themselves out so that we end up with the true score e. For example, self-esteem is a general attitude toward the self that is fairly stable over time. Psychologists consider three types of consistency: over time test-retest reliability , across items internal consistency , and across different researchers inter-rater reliability. For example, people might make a series of bets in a simulated game of roulette as a measure of their level of risk seeking. The error reflects conditions that result in the score that we are measuring not reflecting the true score, but a variation on the actual score e. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 MMPI-2 measures many personality characteristics and disorders by having people decide whether each of over different statements applies to them—where many of the statements do not have any obvious relationship to the construct that they measure. For example, one would expect test anxiety scores to be negatively correlated with exam performance and course grades and positively correlated with general anxiety and with blood pressure during an exam. The reliability and validity of a measure is not established by any single study but by the pattern of results across multiple studies.

This is known as convergent validity. Example: Levels of employee motivation at ABC Company can be assessed using observation method by two different assessors, and inter-rater reliability relates to the extent of difference between the two assessments.

For example, one would expect test anxiety scores to be negatively correlated with exam performance and course grades and positively correlated with general anxiety and with blood pressure during an exam.

Reliability and validity in quantitative research

Validity is harder to assess, but it can be estimated by comparing the results to other relevant data or theory. Interrater Reliability Many behavioural measures involve significant judgment on the part of an observer or a rater. You measure the temperature of a liquid sample several times under identical conditions. Or imagine that a researcher develops a new measure of physical risk taking. How are reliability and validity assessed? The assessment of reliability and validity is an ongoing process. But how do researchers know that the scores actually represent the characteristic, especially when it is a construct like intelligence, self-esteem, depression, or working memory capacity? The error reflects conditions that result in the score that we are measuring not reflecting the true score, but a variation on the actual score e. When a measure has good test-retest reliability and internal consistency, researchers should be more confident that the scores represent what they are supposed to. What is reliability? This is as true for behavioural and physiological measures as for self-report measures. However, if a measurement is valid, it is usually also reliable. Methods of estimating reliability and validity are usually split up into different types.

High reliability is one indicator that a measurement is valid. Oliver considers validity to be a compulsory requirement for all types of studies. To obtain useful results, the methods you use to collect your data must be valid: the research must be measuring what it claims to measure.

The e-book covers all stages of writing a dissertation starting from the selection of the research area to submitting the completed version of the work before the deadline. Measures to ensure validity of a research include, but not limited to the following points: a Appropriate time scale for the study has to be selected; b Appropriate methodology has to be chosen, taking into account the characteristics of the study; c The most suitable sample method for the study has to be selected; d The respondents must not be pressured in any ways to select specific choices among the answer sets.

Then assess its internal consistency by making a scatterplot to show the split-half correlation even- vs.

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Research Reliability