Time after time, as Crusaders slogged southeast on their umpteenth trip to the Holy Land, they slaughtered the Jews in their path.
In fact, the unbelievable vitriol with which conservative Christians have insisted on maligning not just radicals but an entire religion looks a lot like the kind of violence and intolerance of which they accuse Muslims.
Remember him, the guy who killed 29 Muslims as they prayed? Modern communications enabled governments to create and propagate a national ethos, and allowed states to intrude into the lives of their citizens more than had ever been possible.
The invention of the concept of "religious violence" helps the West reinforce superiority of Western social orders to "nonsecular" social orders, namely Muslims at the time of publication. Christians, Buddhists, Hindus, Jews, Muslims, Sikhs and others have long invoked violence in the name of religion.
Hostilities against Muslims and Jews also increased across Europe, as did threats against Hindus in more than 18 countries. After studying suicide attacks carried out over the last two decades, he concludes that suicide bombers' actions stem fundamentally from political conflict, not religion.
Conflicts branded as religious were often political struggles for power and territory but given a sacred patina as rulers justified their aggression as a mission from God. During the French revolution, one of the first acts of the new national assembly on November 2,was to confiscate all church property to pay off the national debt: secularisation involved dispossession, humiliation and marginalisation.
Innovation was essential to progress, so people had to be allowed to think freely, unconstrained by the constraints of their class, guild or church.
Terrorism expert Martha Crenshaw suggests that religion is just a mask used by political movements to draw support. We are told that the fanatical fringe groups who do these terrible things are at odds with the essential Muslim commitment to peace and love.